With this knowledge in hand, effective mechanisms to promote both environmental benefits and poverty alleviation can be designed.
Country level agricultural, nutrition, fisheries, forestry, food quality control time series databases are available from the FAOSTAT Socio economic aspects of land degradation, which can be accessed through www.
An important issue has arisen from this literature: Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar. For example, AEZ simulations on potential crop yields may be overlaid with GIS coverages of measured data on actual yields in order to identify the spatial distribution of systematic deviations. Poverty, institutions and the environmental resource base.
The estimation task is twofold: An empirical assessment of farmers' discount rates in Costa Rica. From the farmer's perspective, which of these is preferable will depend on the potential incremental return to production which can obtained from taking an action which generates an environmental service, the potential risk and returns which can obtained from becoming an environmental service provider, and how these compare with the risks and returns associated with maintaining current practices.
The implications of the presence or absence of social capital on the capacity of a group to take collective action have made up an important part of this literature.
Since soil resources are a fairly illiquid investment, precautionary savings in this asset would be expected to be less common than other more liquid assets. This is a case in which exogenous forces have performed the manipulation of variables through events over which the agents that are being observed have negligible control.
These are expected to vary across technologies and production conditions, so detailed knowledge about the specific farming system and natural capital endowments is necessary before any prediction of the impact of risk on soil management incentives can be made.
Agricultural Economics, 79 2: Reiskirchen, Germany, Catena Verlag. New York, John Wiley. Through these estimation techniques, packaging AEZ GIS data with automated yield simulation models could greatly enhance the understanding of the relationship among agricultural production, soil degradation and socio-economic effects.
Again, a table is generated, but this table is now referenced to the smallest subpolygons of the union of all the datasets. As a result, estimation of the effects of socio-economic variables on soil degradation is left for future work.
Yields depend on the quality of the soil, while the quality of the soil is influenced by agricultural practices. Their response to the incentives and constraints that they are confronted with will, in turn, determine their decisions on the application of inputs, intensification and management practices.
In some cases a market mechanism is the proposed solution, as in the case of carbon emissions and sequestration, while in other cases grants such as those made under the Global Environment Facility are the form of payment.
The questions were framed by asking respondents how much they would need to be paid today in order to forego a given amount of money to be paid in one year's time.
In the process of integration, two final datasets are created.
The presentation then proceeds to describe the socio-economic data, which are mostly in tabular form, and must be referenced to geographic locations using the GIS borders and associated names of national or administrative units.
It is important to know and to communicate clearly whether project results are based on observed data or modelling products. Whatever techniques are employed to increase the efficiency of the data use, one must keep in mind that national level data do not contain as much information as more disaggregated datasets and will be clouded with the multitude of different factors in a complex national economy.
Fortunately, although it does lower the power of the estimation, it does not bias the parameter estimates Dubin, The P values for the parameters are low, with all the parameters being statistically significant beyond the ten percent level.
The average values are exported to a tabular dataset, with one row for each nation and one column for each variable. The terms of trade is the ratio of the average cost of a nation's export goods divided by the average cost of that nation's import goods.
Information that may be valid but that cannot be distinguished from confounding data must either be filtered or not used. For the current study, differences between regions are compared in order to estimate statistical relationships.
This reminds the researcher that rejection of the significance of a parameter may be due to a lack of data and conservative estimation techniques. However, in recent years it has increasingly been recognized that in many circumstances creating the means for successful common management of property can result in both improved environmental outcomes as well as positive impacts on the production capacity of the poor.
At this point, it is frequently the case that GIS data are not readily available at the finer scales of resolution, so the question then becomes to what extent datasets at a larger scale of resolution can be used to recover relationships generated at a finer scale, and the pitfalls in doing so.
The final integrated dataset is a table which has each item linked to a geographical region. Population density is the only variable that is not significant.
Through the natural experiment, the researcher benefits from observing how different agents react to the different situations they are faced with.
These factors are assumed to be effectively uninfluenced by the soil quality.socio-economic and biophysical causes of land degradation have been identified locally in many case studies, these have not been inventoried systematically at district, national or.
The following is a list of the most cited articles based on citations published in the last three years, according to CrossRef. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF LAND DEGRADATION INTRODUCTION Land degradation is the loss of production capacity of the land.
Degraded land is a land, which due to natural processes or human activity is no longer able to sustain properly an economic. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF LAND DEGRADATION INTRODUCTION Land degradation is the loss of production capacity of the land. Degraded land is a land, which due to natural processes or human activity is no longer able to sustain properly an economic function and/or the original natural ecological function.
recreation, bird watching, ecotourism, etc.).Socio-economic benefits that can be generated from sustainable and efficient use of environmental resources include recreation and ecotourism.
According to an estimate, about 11 million km2 are affected by water erosion, 5.
5 million km2 by wind erosion, and 0. 8 million km2 by physical soil degradation; at least 2. 25 million km2 of land affected by water erosion is degraded to such an extent that it is no longer suitable for agricultural land use.Download